Introducing Zephaniah

Zephaniah has long been a favourite book of mine, ever since some memorable one-to-ones with a friend in London who was preparing to teach it on camp.

Last term we had to write a short essay covering the dating, authorship, outline and theology of a Minor Prophet: basically the kinds of things you normally get in the introduction to a commentary. My submission received a decent mark, so I thought I’d post it here for the benefit of those who don’t have access to good library resources.

Today I’ll post my discussion of the date, authorship and outline of Zephaniah and follow up with the theology of Zephaniah and the bibliography in another post.

1. Dating

The book of Zephaniah presents itself as ’the word of Yahweh that was to Zephaniah … in the days of Josiah’ (1:1) , i.e. 640-609 B.C. Josiah was a reforming king whose rule, in the view of the authors of Kings and Chronicles, marks one of ‘the highest points in the post-Solomonic phase of the monarchy’ (Boda, 2012, p899) after the low point of his father Manasseh. Although this dating has been questioned, recent critical scholarship tends to assign ‘the greater part of the book to Zephaniah’ (Kselman, 1992, p1078). One author who disagrees with that view is Ben Zvi (discussed in Berlin, 1994, pp34-40). Ben Zvi dates the final form of the book to the post-exilic period, where its message would have been most meaningful (Berlin, 1994, p34). However, Berlin points out that even Ben Zivi acknowledges that core material in the book can probably be traced to Zephaniah himself (1994, p33,42).

Scholars debate when Zephaniah is to be dated within Josiah’s reign. Berlin (1994, p34) says that the consensus is that Zephaniah prophesied before Josiah’s reforms in 622 B.C. because Zephaniah’s description of Jewish society is so similar to the portrait of Judah before Josiah’s reforms in 2 Kings 22. However, a number of commentators (e.g. Baker, 1996, p851) note that Josiah’s reforms, while celebrated by the author of Kings, appear to be centralised and top down. Zephaniah may be targeting a literal ‘remnant of the Baal’ (1:4), priests who persisted in serving Baal, despite state opposition to the practice. In favour of a post-reform date, Robertson (1990, p254-256) points to Zephaniah’s extensive verbal links with Deuteronomy, the discovery or production of which is usually taken to have provided the theological impetus for Josiah’s reforms (Sweeney, 2000, p494). In my view Robertson’s argument is compelling and has not been overturned by other scholarship (e.g. Mason, 1994, p41). Accordingly, we can date the substantial body of Zephaniah to between 622-612 B.C., after the discovery of the book of the Law, and before the fall of Nineveh (Baker, 2012, p254).

2. Authorship

Following the current consensus, I take Zephaniah as substantially authored by the prophet himself. Zephaniah seems to have been a common name, and may reflect a godly family (Zephaniah means ‘Yahweh has hidden, Baker, 1996, p851). We are given no information about the prophet himself apart from the four generation genealogy, which goes back to Hezekiah. This unusually long genealogy is normally taken to mean that Zephaniah was a descendant of King Hezekiah, whose reforms Josiah in many ways imitated (Baker, 2012, p254). Blenkinsopp (cited in Berlin, 1994, p66) defers from the consensus by suggesting that Zephaniah’s father ‘Cushi’ is an Egyptian, due to the similarity between his name and Cush, the Biblical name for Egypt. The longer genealogy would then serve to authenticate Zephaniah as a true Israelite (Berlin, 1994, pp66-67). However, according to Deut. 23:7-8, only children born to second generation Egyptian-Israelites were fully Israelite, so in my view the majority opinion provides the best explanation for the presence of the genealogy.

3. Contents

Berlin (1994, pp12-19) notes that there is little consensus on how to subdivide Zephaniah. The following description of the contents of Zephaniah builds on the analysis of Motyer (1998, pp901-902) and Sweeney (1991):

  1. Superscription (1:1)
  2. Call to seek Yahweh in the light of the coming Day of Yahweh (1:2-3:20)
    1. The Day of Yahweh I – cosmic and individual judgement (1:2-18)
    2. Call I: seek Yahweh humbly (2:1-4)
    3. The Day of Yahweh II – worldwide and local judgement (2:5-3:7)
    4. Call II: wait for Yahweh trustingly (3:8)
    5. The Day of Yahweh III – universal and local salvation for the remnant (3:9-20)




Engaging with Barth: Faith as Trust


Barth begins his exposition of the Apostles’ Creed by unpacking what he understands by the phrase “I believe”. He’ll do this over the course of three chapters (which I think were probably 1.5 lectures originally) by exploring the nature of faith from 3 different perspectives:

  1. Faith as trust
  2. Faith as knowledge
  3. Faith as confession

And so in this second chapter of Dogmatics in Outline, Barth begins with faith as trust. Here’s Barth’s leading idea:

Christian faith is the gift of the meeting in which men become free to hear the word of grace which God has spoken in Jesus Christ in such a way that, in spite of all that contradicts it, they may once for all, exclusively and entirely, hold to his promise and guidance.

There’s a lot packed into this statement, but perhaps the most eye-catching part is the description of faith as the gift of a meeting. Barth says “In Christian faith we are concerned quite decisively with a meeting”. The Bible is clear that faith is a gift (Ephesians 2), but what is this idea of a meeting?

For Barth, this encapsulates his concern that faith cannot be understood apart from what it is faith in: “‘I believe in’ – so the Confession says; and everything depends on this ‘in’.” He points out with approval that apart from this opening phrase, the Creed itself is silent on any human response, focusing instead on God, the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. In doing so, Barth says, it “speaks at its best, deepest and completest about what happens to us men, about what we may be, do and experience.” It seems fair to say that Barth would not be a fan of the focus on subjective experience found in many churches today:

Nor was it a good time when Christians grew eloquent over their action, over the uplift and emotion of the experience of this thing, which took place in man, and when they became speechless as to what we may believe.

So by beginning with “I” but moving swiftly on to the object of faith, Barth believes the Creed is emphasising the objective side to the God-man relationship. But that doesn’t mean he is sidelining a relational Christianity in favour of something academic and dry. On the contrary, because the meeting is with the persons of the Trinity, it is highly relational: “what interests me is not myself with my faith, but He in whom I believe.”

For Barth, this meeting is one in which God makes us free to trust in his gracious word. On our part we simply make use of the gift in which God has given me Himself. In a beautiful phrase, Barth describes faith as a kind of joyful breathing. I think the idea of being made free to trust describes well the biblical pictures – think of Blind Bartimeus being made able to see.

I found Barth’s overall stress on the objective and relational largely very helpful. However, what is really the doctrine of regeneration does at times feel slightly crow-barred into this phrase ‘I believe’, and the actual human response of holding to God’s word is in danger of being forced out. It was only as I was composing that that I realised I’d initially mis-read Barth’s definition of faith to be saying that “faith is a gift which is a meeting”. I wonder if it could be clarified by saying “faith is the gift that comes when God encounters men in such a way that they become free to…”

Having completed this essential groundwork of God’s grace, in the second half of the chapter Barth proceeds to elaborate on the nature of trust, and we see how the focus on the gracious meeting with God in the first half of the chapter leads naturally on to trust in God. This section is brilliantly pastoral, and rather than analyse it I’ll give a flavour of it with some of my favourite quotes:

‘I believe’ means ‘I trust’. No more must I dream of trusting in myself, I no longer require to justify myself, to excuse myself, to attempt to save and preserve myself.

Faith delivers us from trust in such gods, and therefore also from the fear of them, from the disillusionments which they inevitably prepare for us again and again. We are given freedom to trust in Him who deserves our trust: freedom by holding on to Him who in distinction from all other authorities is and will remain faithful.

We ourselves will never be true to ourselves. Our human path is, as such, a path from one disloyalty to another; and it is the same with the ways of the gods of this world. They do not keep what they promise. So with them there is never any real peace and clarity. In God alone there is faithfulness, and faith is the trust that we may hold on to Him, to his promise and to his guidance.

Barth develops the idea of guidance to include in this area of faith as trust a discussion of the law. For Barth obedience to the law flows directly out of the meeting with God that comes through the gospel: “The Creed is always at the same time the gospel, God’s glad tidings to man, the message of Immanuel, God with us, to us; and as such it is necessarily also the law… To hold to God thus always means that we receive everything wholly from God and so are wholly active for him.”

I’ll close by just flagging up one issue. In his discussion of the “in spite of everything” part of his definition of faith, Barth says this: “We never believe ‘on account of’, never ‘because of’; we awake to faith in spite of everything.”

There’s some truth here, but I think we’d want to say that Jesus did provide many proofs of his identity (Acts 1:3) – so while God does awaken us to faith as he opens blind eyes, it’s not quite true to say that it’s “in spite of everything.”

I found this to be a powerful and persuasive chapter. I particularly liked Barth’s language about God giving us the freedom to trust him and I think there’s a lot to learn from it.

Next time we’ll look at Barth’s discussion of faith as knowledge.

Engaging with Barth: Dogmatics in Outline


If you’re anything like me, Karl Barth is the kind of theologian who you’ve heard lots about, but haven’t actually read. Often called the greatest theologian of the 20th Century, he sounds like he’s an interesting and provocative read. But his main work, Church Dogmatics, is a massive multivolume tome. Not only is it expensive (at least for an edition where the non-English phrases are translated), but you also risk missing the forest for the trees.

So when I first came across a slim volume of his called “Dogmatics in Outline”, I was intrigued. It’s Barth’s exposition of the Apostles’ Creed, delivered in the semi-ruins of Bonn University in 1946:

the hour seven a.m., always after we had sung a psalm or hymn to cheer us up. About eight o’clock the rebuilding in the quadrangle began to advertise itself in the rattle of an engine for breaking up the ruins.

Barth lectured with basically a post-it sized set of notes (“the primitive conditions I met with in Germany made it absolutely necessary for me to dispense with a manuscript”). According to Barth himself this has the effect of making his writing more accessible: “this looser form [might] serve to explain things which I had elsewhere expressed more strictly and compactly but, for that very reason perhaps, less noticeably and accessibly for all.”

So, for that reason, and because his ideas are rooted in an exposition of a classic text, the Apostles’ Creed, I thought this would be a sensible place to start reading Barth.

Each of the chapters in the book begins with a proposition expressed in a sentence or two which Barth then unpacks. My plan is to blog about each of these chapters, giving Barth’s proposition and then highlighting and discussing what seem to be the main features.

The first chapter is called the Task, and it’s Barth’s view of what he himself is doing in Dogmatics in Outline, so I’ll end this introductory post with an overview of this chapter.

Dogmatics is the science in which the Church, in accordance with the state of its knowledge at different times, takes account of the content of its proclamation critically, that is by the standard of Holy Scripture and under the guidance of its Confessions

In this opening chapter, Barth discusses his view of ‘dogmatics’. We might be surprised today at the use of the word science to describe the work of theology, but by that Barth means “an attempt at comprehension and exposition, at investigation and instruction, which is related to a definite object and sphere of activity.”

So Barth is not invoking the scientific method in a strict sense, but he is wanting to allude to both the rigour and provisional nature of human scientific investigation. He doesn’t see Christian dogmatics as something fallen from Heaven in a pristine state, but as the ongoing task of critically examining what the Church proclaims. In other words, he says the task of the science of dogmatics is to answer the question: “what as Christians do we really have to say?” I appreciated this emphasis on refining the Church’s proclamation – it means that the goal of dogmatics is inherently practical, missional and churchly. It ought to help keep us from descending into “meaningless talk”.

A related point that Barth stresses is that dogmatics is meant to be done by the Church. This might seem like an obvious point, but it serves to nicely begin to locate Barth for us. His background and early career was in the liberal university theology of early 20th Century German. Barth came to a place where he rejected that theology as empty and rethought nearly everything. Clearly in this opening chapter we can see how Scripture, proclamation and the Church are vital for him, but the fact that he has to stress these points shows just how different his context is to many of ours today: he is an ex-liberal (and who knows still how liberal) talking I imagine to liberals and ex-liberals. In his preface, Barth describes how he discovered in the rubbish of the University a bust of the ‘Father of liberal theology’ Friedrich Schleiermacher, which was “restored to honour again”. So when we read Barth we need to be aware that he may not be reacting to our debates, and that he has been coming from quite a different place.

Next time we’ll get into the Apostles’ Creed itself: Barth will begin to define faith, as he unpacks the first words of the Creed – “I believe…”

Review of “The Holy Trinity” by Stephen Holmes

It seems that, in the world of Trinitarian theology, Stephen Holmes’ 2012 overview of the development of the doctrine of the Trinity from the Old Testament through to the 20th Century has been, in the best sense, controversial. A theological journal recently devoted an entire issue to the discussion of Holmes’ work, and fellow-theologian Karen Kilby endorses it on the back cover as “a real intervention in a debate”. But strikingly, she also endorses it as being at the same time “a textbook for serious students”.

As someone with little formal theological training, I am not in a position to comment on its impact on the debate (of which more in a moment), and am not even a serious student. However, I am someone with a keen interest in speaking about God in a way that is faithful to his Word, as it’s been reflected on by his Church through the centuries, and so the “textbook” part of Kilby’s endorsement appealed to me. On top of which, who doesn’t like a good debate? I read the book to get an overview and introduction to Trinitarian doctrine, particularly to see whether I’d been falling into any obvious traps. It’s with that agenda in mind that I want to offer a review of it: given its controversial and serious nature, is “The Holy Trinity” the best place to start?

To answer that question, I’ll briefly summarise the book, evaluate it in light of that aim, and then raise some questions it prompted for me to illustrate the kind of thinking it provoked.

Holmes’ thesis is that the biggest divide in Trinitarian theology is not between Eastern and Western versions, but between the modern account of the doctrine and the teaching of the Church Fathers. Holmes contends that the modern version of the doctrine is essentially unrooted from, and at points explicitly at odds with, the traditional one. To substantiate this Holmes seeks to offer objective and careful readings of both modern and ancient Trinitarian theologies. He claims that a strong modern/traditional division “arises naturally out of such readings without very much need for further argument.” And so after an introductory chapter outlining the themes of recent Trinitarian theology, Holmes works through chapters on the Fathers’ exegesis of the Old and New Testaments, debates between the Fathers leading up to and following the Council of Nicea, the reception and development of the doctrine in through late antiquity and the medieval period and then the radical questioning of the doctrine in the 17th-18th centuries. In a final chapter, Holmes shows how the 20th century’s Trinitarian theology is at least as shaped by the questions (“how can we recover a Biblical doctrine of God free from the influence of Greek philosophy?”) and redefinitions (particularly of the word ‘person’) of the preceding two centuries as it is by the first 16 since Christ. Along the way, Holmes gives helpful summaries of his argument and his findings. In essence he claims that modern Trinitarianism:

  • speaks univocally about God and created things
  • defines ‘person’ as a centre of will/volition
  • rejects the doctrine of simplicity (that is, God is without parts) as being philosophical
  • has an inadequate construction of God’s unity
  • is willing to entangle God’s being, and especially the Son and the Spirit, with his creation through an over-emphasis on the work of the Trinity in creation and redemption as a source for understanding God’s eternal life

In contrast, the traditional doctrine:

  • is careful to describe all speech about God as analogical
  • thinks of God’s will as being undivided, and therefore his “personality” is a property of the one rather than the three
  • regards God’s simplicity as the central and necessary glue holding our thought about God together
  • constructs a doctrine of unity through a careful distinction between what can be said of the nature/essence/substance of God and the persons/hypostastes
  • maintains the Creator/creature distinction as central, while affirming God’s ability to act immediately in the world, resulting in the placement of the Son and the Spirit firmly on the side of being uncreated

The above is just a rough sketch from memory of Holmes’ concerns and conclusions – for Holmes’ own, typically clear and forthright, presentation of these, see the final page (p200) of the book.

So, how did this book serve as an introduction to the doctrine of the Trinity for someone without formal theological training? “The Holy Trinity” is a short book, and so Holmes is often condensed. I found that I had to read this book actively, with a pencil in hand. Some frequently used words such as “hypostasis” were initially confusing but became clearer as I cross-referenced (I take it to be a way of saying ‘person’ without bringing the modern connotations of that word into play). I was helped by Holmes’ regular eye to serve the reader with conclusions and well laid out arguments within and between the chapters. The fact that this work is one with a specific agenda did not for me detract from it: like the gospel writers, Holmes thinks his purpose is best served through a simple laying out of facts, and so the work can still function well as an introduction to the history of the doctrine. I certainly had the impression that Holmes was engaging with the most representative or important parts of the tradition, acknowledging where the evidence was not always precisely in line with his thesis. In fact, the presence of a clear argument made for what was, given the sometimes abstract subject matter, a gripping read (the American title “The Quest for the Trinity” bears witness to this dynamic). Coming away from it, I certainly feel like I have a surer grasp of Trinitarian doctrine, especially as taught by the Fathers but also the modern version. And importantly, I feel that Holmes has made me aware of the points at which he has presented controversial views.

How about those Trinitarian traps I was worried about? Reading this as someone from a classically Reformed/evangelical tradition, I wasn’t always finding myself on the receiving end of Holmes’ criticism: as described by Holmes, modern theologians like Robert Jenson really do go a long way towards entangling the life of God with the world, in a way that I haven’t heard being expressed in the evangelical circles I’ve been part of. However, reading the first chapter’s summary of modern Trinitarian doctrine, I recognised a number of themes that I would be sympathetic to: the centrality of personality and relationship in God’s own life, the possibility of speaking of God’s character in ways which are essentially overlapping with our own existence, the relevance of the doctrine for our community life, and the validity of reasoning from the revealed actions of the Trinity to the eternal life of God, often known as Rahner’s Rule (“the economic Trinity is the immanent Trinity” e.g. the Son pours out the Spirit once he has returned to his Father as a reflection of the procession of the Spirit from the Father and the Son). In these areas, I think reading Holmes will help me to be more discriminating before speaking: I’ll certainly be wary, for example, of using the modern definition of the word person in reference to the Father, Son and Spirit.

Perhaps the best way to end this review is to give a list of questions I’ve jotted down for myself to look into as I seek understanding. These aren’t meant to imply criticisms. Instead, they show how this engaging book has stimulated my thinking on this vital doctrine. To anyone who is looking to be introduce to the topic and willing to work with Holmes through his argument, I recommend the book highly.

  1. God’s simplicity is “at the heart of Trinitarian doctrine” (p200). Can it be firmly grounded in revelation?
  2. What does it mean for God to be ‘personal’? Is ‘personality’ (modern def.) only a property of God’s one undivided nature/work, or can we say that each of the three are truly personal? (p200)
  3. The economy is determinative for Anselm (p149), Augustine and Aquinas (p157 n29) as well as Rahner (p10). But Holmes argues that consistent application of Rahner’s Rule has led to an entangling between God and creation (p24). What responsible rules are there for working from the economy to God’s eternal life?
  4. In sections on Eunomius (p98), Augustine (p136) and Calvin (p169-70), the issue of whether the Father’s ingenerateness can be said of the Son and the Spirit is raised. What does it mean to say that the Son is independent, yet begotten? Is the classical answer that begottenness is a personal property while independence is a property of the nature sustainable?
  5. Holmes refers repeatedly to “one God existing thrice over” (e.g. p109) and “three instantiations of the divine nature” (p200). Are these Holmes’ own formulations or traditional ones, and what do they mean?
  6. If ‘personality’ in the modern sense resides in the one rather than the three, what does it mean to have a relationship with the Father, through the Son, by the Spirit?

Why do Catholic Christians pray to Mary?

I was asked the other day on behalf of someone who’s a Catholic Christian why Catholics pray to Mary.

There’s a whole larger theological sweep, comparing Mary with Eve as the mother of all the living, and, as the bearer of God, with the ark of the covenant. But from a bit of digging around in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, the following seems to me are the key points that the doctrine is drawn from.

Catholic position:
Luke 1.28-30. Mary is uniquely the favoured one because The Lord is with her. (p570)

Luke 1.48 “All generations will call me blessed” – “the Church’s devotion to the Blessed Virgin is intrinsic to Christian worship” (p222)

Luke 1.38 “Let it be to me according to your word” – “Without a single sin to restrain her, she gave herself entirely to the person and to the work of her Son” (p110)

This is the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception: “The Blessed Mary was, by a singular grace and privelege of Almighty God and by virtue of the merits of Jesus Christ…, preserved immune from all stain of original sin” (p110)

It follows that because of her unique position that “we can pray with her and to her” (p571): “because of Mary’s singular co-operation with the action of the Holy Spirit, the Church loves to pray in communion with the Virgin Mary” (p571), including “entrusting the supplications and praises of the children of God to the Mother of Jesus” (p569)

Protestant position:
Luke 11.27-28. More blessed than the body which bore Jesus are those who hear and keep God’s word. While Mary is certainly blessed, true blessing comes from honouring God, not physical or biological closeness.

Mark 3:31-34. Jesus’ mother and brothers stand outside the house where Jesus is teaching and ask him to come out to them. It looks like Mary did not always have full confidence in Jesus – are we sure she was sinless? (Cf Mark 4.11 – to be outside the house was to be outside the kingdom and not understanding Jesus’ teaching) On the other hand, Mary’s position is not fundamentally unique: while certainly blessed to be the mother of our Lord (Luke 1:42-43), Jesus declares that anyone who does God’s will is his brother or sister or mother.

Therefore, we do not need Mary’s help in bringing our prayers to God, and Scripture does not encourage us to seek it. Rather:
Ephesians 3:11-12 – We have full access to God through Jesus
Romans 8:26-27 – The Spirit of God intercedes for us to the Father
Romans 8:34 – Christ Jesus is interceding for us at God’s right hand
Hebrews 10:19-22 – We can draw near to God in full confidence, because of the blood of Jesus.

Our Lord gives us our pattern for prayer: “this then is how you should pray: Our Father…” (Matthew 5:8-13)

Made like God

An assembly talk for 4-6 year olds.

Good morning. my name is Sam and I’m a follower of Jesus.

We haven’t met before. But if I asked you who you were what would you say?

You’d probably tell me your name. And that’s great.

But is there something that all of you are?

Is there something that every person on the planet is? – a human being

What’s a human being?

The Bible tells us who we all are – it tells us what it means to be a human being. If we go to the start of the Bible we find that

God said, “Let us make humanity in our image, after our likeness.”

Let me tell you a story.

There was once a Father and a Son who were toy makers. They loved to create toys that were exciting and fun. They created tractors, and bricks and computer games and crayons and tea sets. They had great fun together making all these things.

But one day the Father said to his Son, “I know what would be really fun. let’s make a toy that is like us”. The Son said “if it’s going to be like us it would have to be able to talk like us and laugh like us and think like us and even be able to make things like us. If we made a toy like that, it wouldn’t just be a toy, it would be our friend.”

And the Father said, do you think we can do it? And the Son said, yes!

And so do you know what they did? They took a piece a normal piece of wood, and they crafted it together. They took extra care over it, because this was going to be a toy that wouldn’t just be a toy, but would also be their friend. And when they were finally finished, the toy woke up. And the father said to the toy “Hi. I’m the Father and this is my Son. We made you to be like us”. And they had. they had made a toy that could listen to them and laugh with them, and think like them. And over time they even helped the toy to make it’s own mini toys, just like them.

Boys and girls, we are a lot bit like the toy in that story. The Bible says that God has made us to be like him, and to be his friends. We can talk like God, we can laugh like God and think like God. We can even make things ourselves, a bit like God. We can’t do all those things exactly the same as God. But we can do all those things.

And that means that every one of us and every person on this planet is very special. We have all been given a gift, even if we don’t know it. God has made us, and he’s made us like him.

And that means that the best thing in our lives is doing what we were made to do. And that’s being God’s friends. Talking with God and laughing with God, thinking about God and even making things with God’s help. This is who we are made to be.

So let’s always remember this: that we are all made by God to be his friends.

The essence of the Christian religion

Towards the end of his introduction to dogmatics (“the system of the knowledge of God as he has revealed himself in Christ”) Dutch theologian Herman Bavinck gives a summary of his system:

The essence of the Christian religion consists in the reality that the creation of the Father, ruined by sin, is restored in the death of the Son of God and re-created by the grace of the Holy Spirit into a kingdom of God.

Note how Bavinck emphasises the objective reality of Christian belief: he does not mention human faith (except in reference to ‘religion’), but the object of faith – the work of God in creation, redemption and perfection. This structure guides his work: volume 1 introduces “dogmatics” as the believer’s confession of the ground and content of his faith as revealed through the Scriptures, volume 2 is God and creation, volume 3 sin and salvation in Christ, volume 4 Holy Spirit, church and new creation.

Handy to have a summary in one sentence!

What this definition misses somewhat is a goal, a driving force, both for God’s action and for our lives. It seems to focus more on God’s action in restoring creation than God himself. This seems to be behind Bavinck’s next sentence:

Dogmatics shows us how God, who is all-sufficent in himself, nevertheless glorifies himself in his creation, which, even when it is torn apart by sin, is gathered up again in Christ (Ephesians 1:10).

And so, dogmatics is a “doxology to all God’s virtues and perfections, a hymn of adoration and thanksgiving, a “glory to God in the highest” (Luke 2:14).”

(Reformed Dogmatics, I, 34)